1. What could World Heritage listing deliver for Indigenous people?
IHG Convenor Ian Lilley is leading this three-year project under consideration for funding by the Australian Research Council for 2014-2016. It will investigate the difference between the intentions of the World Heritage system regarding Indigenous people and what it actually delivers. There is almost no scholarly research on this issue despite UNESCO's aim to expand the non-Western dimensions of the World Heritage program. The study will develop innovative methods that integrate Western and Indigenous knowledge, substantially boosting understanding of Indigenous perspectives on World Heritage. The outcome will be an evidence-based model that better mediates UNESCO's universalising approach with the particular interests of Indigenous communities, assisting the global 'heritage industry' to address the complex demands of the postcolonial era. It will work in selected Australian World Heritage Sites, including Uluru-Kata Tjuta, Purnululu and the Tasmanian Wilderness.
2. Shanghai Archaeology Forum
IHG Convenor Ian Lilley and co-founder Chris Gosden (Oxford University) have been invited by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Archaeology to join the ‘Shanghai Archaeology Forum’ http://shanghaiarchaeologyforum.org/
Ian is an Advisory Member and Chris a member of the Selection Committee. In that capacity they assess work in archaeology and cultural heritage from around the world for international recognition by China. The inaugural Forum was held in Shanghai in late August 2013. IHG is particularly keen to see the Forum live up to its stated intention to address issues of social inequality, globalization and cultural diversity, public archaeology and community engagement, the ethics of archaeological practice and the protection and preservation of archaeological resources and cultural heritage.
IHG Convenor Ian Lilley and three members of the original IHG ‘Keble Group’ at Oxford, Doug Comer, Willem Willems and Sjoerd van der Linde, have various roles in Leiden University’s Faculty of Archaeology NEARCH research network, under the direction of Dr Monique van den Dries http://archaeology.leiden.edu/research/archaeological-heritage-management/
In the context of the European Commission’s "Culture 2007-2013" program, NEARCH, succeeds the ACE-network (Archaeology in Contemporary Europe: professional practices & public outreach) 2007-2012. NEARCH aims to highlight the societal component of archaeology and focuses on the development and evaluation of new scenarios for community-involved archaeology. It will explore five different dimensions to widen-up the spectrum of public participation: encouraging artistic creations; initiating original dissemination tools; promoting transnational use of modern educational material; remodeling the profession as a cultural industry and enhancing community-driven site maintenance. The Faculty will coordinate the research on the latter. The network consists of thirteen organizations from ten European countries and runs up until 2017.
The original IHG ‘Keble Group’ included a number of Executive and Expert members of ICAHM, the ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Archaeological Heritage Management http://www.icomos.org/icahm/
. Based in Paris near UNESCO, ICOMOS is the International Council on Monuments and Sites, statutory Advisory Body on Cultural World Heritage to the UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
ICAHM is concerned not only with World Heritage Sites, but with all archaeological sites, landscapes, and related resources around the world. ICAHM collaborates with international, national, regional, and local organizations that pursue related goals. ICAHM is unique among them in its focus on the development and propagation of effective and efficient international cultural resource management standards and practices. Doug Comer and Willem Willems are ICAHM Co-Presidents and Ian Lilley is Secretary-General. Jeff Altschul (SRI), Elisabeth Bradshaw (Rio Tinto), Anita Smith (independent scholar) and Gerry Wait (Nexus Heritage) are all Expert Members of ICAHM.
Under a joint IHG-ICAHM banner, IHG Convenor Ian Lilley organised a ‘Knowledge Café’ on “Cultural Heritage Management Capacity and Enhanced Biocultural Resilience in High-Value Landscapes” at the 2012 IUCN World Conservation Congress in Jeju, South Korea. Based in Geneva, IUCN is the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, the statutory Advisory Body on Natural World Heritage to UNESCO World Heritage Centre in Paris http://www.iucn.org/
The Knowledge Café– a form of specialised high-level workshop –featured the participation of Tim Badman, Head of IUCN’s World Heritage Programme, Jessica Brown, Chair of the IUCN Protected Landscapes Specialist Group, and Terralingua’s Luisa Maffi, principal proponent of the concept of biocultural diversity, as well as other members of IUCN with interests in this area. ICOMOS Vice President Kristal Buckley was also a major participant. The objective was to come up with a shortlist of achievable proposals for concrete action that will enhance capabilities in the integrated management of natural and cultural World Heritage.
Following the Jeju meeting, Ian was invited to become an IUCN Commissioner in the Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy (CEESP). This role makes also him a member of IUCN’s Theme on Indigenous Peoples, Local Communities, Equity and Protected Areas (TILCEPA). Ian has also been asked to coordinate a Working Group on Culture, Conservation and World Heritage for the IUCN Theme on Culture and Conservation (TCC) and to be the TCC liaison point with the IUCN Secretariat World Heritage Program led by Tim Badman. The Working Group will work closely with the IUCN Theme on Sustainable Livelihoods (TSL).
IHG Convenor Ian Lilley is Secretary-General of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association (IPPA), that region’s peak professional body http://ippa.weblogs.anu.edu.au/
. IPPA promotes cooperation in the study of the prehistory of eastern Asia (east of 70º longitude) and the Pacific region, and has a growing interest in cultural heritage management. Ian is co-organising the 20th IPPA Congress with IPPA President Phon Kaseka from the Royal Academy of Cambodia. It will be held in Siem Reap-Angkor, Cambodia, in January 2014. Ian aims to create close links between IHG and IPPA, as there is considerable need for a heritage management advisory network in the Asia-Pacific.
IHG Convenor Ian Lilley is an International Collaborator on the Canadian project on Intellectual Property Issues in Cultural Heritage (IPinCH) http://www.sfu.ca/ipinch/
. The 7-year project is an international collaboration of archaeologists, Indigenous organizations, lawyers, anthropologists, ethicists, policy makers, and others working to explore and facilitate fair and equitable exchanges of knowledge relating to archaeology. IPinCH is concerned with the theoretical, ethical, and practical implications of commodification, appropriation, and other flows of knowledge about the past, and how these may affect communities, researchers, and other stakeholders. IPinCH is funded through the Major Collaborative Research Initiative Program of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and is the largest project ever funded by this program.
Ian is Co-Chair of the IPinCH Working Group on Sourcebook and Community Tool Kits (“SCT”) The Sourcebook and Community Toolkit Working Group aims to connect community needs and interests with information and tools to: build understanding about the scope and limitations of intellectual property laws; protect intellectual property in cultural heritage; and promote fair and culturally appropriate uses of intellectual property.
8. Collaborative research in New Caledonia
IHG Convenor Ian Lilley is working in New Caledonia with Christophe Sand, Frederique Valentin and a team of co-researchers. New Caledonia is an autonomous French territory some 1200km northeast of Australia. Christophe is Director of the Institut d’Archéologie de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et du Pacifique in Nouméa, and most of the other members of the research team are Institute staff. Frederique is with the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 704, Maison de l'archéologie et de l'ethnologie, Maison René Ginouvès, Paris.
Our project concerns the tiny, remote island of Tiga, smallest of the inhabited islands in New Caledonia’s Loyalty Islands. The territory’s main island, Grande Terre, is geologically complex, while the Loyalties, which lie east of Grande Terre, are simple raised coral reefs. Our work on Tiga includes local archaeologists and oral historians of Kanak, European and Asian descent as well as colleagues of European descent from metropolitan France and Australia. We communicate with the local community in French, which is New Caledonia’s lingua franca, as well as local island languages. We have been exploring the limits of ‘translatability’ of archaeological objectives and findings on the one hand and local conceptions of history on the other. We have found that we can mesh certain details of both in a way that works for archaeologists as well as local people. In doing so, we have come to realise that commonalities of perception on a higher plane of abstraction is ultimately more important to this process than lining up precise details.